Mean annual potential groundwater recharge rates from 1996 - 2010 for Minnesota

This page last updated: 04/09/2015
Metadata created using Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines


Go to Section:
1. Overview
2. Data Quality
3. Data Organization
4. Coordinate System
5. Attributes
6. Distribution - Get Data
7. Metadata Reference

Section 1 Overview
Originator U.S. Geological Survey
Title Mean annual potential groundwater recharge rates from 1996 - 2010 for Minnesota
Abstract Estimated mean annual potential groundwater recharge rates in Minnesota from 1996-2010 based on the Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) model.
Purpose These data represent mean annual potential recharge rates from 1996-2010 to surficial materials for Minnesota using the Soil-Water-Balance model (Westenbroek and others, 2010). They can be used wherever regional estimates of recharge are needed, for example, preliminary estimates for watershed planners and groundwater modelers to obtain potential recharge estimates for an area of interest.

The methodology is documented in: Smith, E.A., and Westenbroek, S.M., 2015, Potential groundwater recharge for the state of Minnesota using the Soil-Water-Balance model, 1996-2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2015-5038 (project report). The original SWB model is documented in: Westenbroek, S.M., Kelson, V.A., Dripps, W.R., Hunt, R.J., and Bradbury, K.R., 2010, SWB - A modified Thornthwaite-Mather Soil-Water-Balance code for estimating groundwater recharge: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap. A31, 60 p. Also available at pubs.usgs.gov/tm/tm6-a31/
Time Period of Content Date
Currentness Reference Mean annual potential recharge rates from 1996-2010. Time Period of Content date indicates the date which the user can be confident of accuracy and completeness of the dataset.
Progress Complete
Maintenance and Update Frequency None Planned
Spatial Extent of Data Minnesota
Bounding Coordinates -97.269875
-89.395466
49.348372
43.43655
Place Keywords Minnesota, MN
Theme Keywords hydrography, groundwater recharge
Theme Keyword Thesaurus
Access Constraints None
Use Constraints None
Contact Person Information Erik Smith, Hydrologist
U.S. Geological Survey
2280 Woodale Drive
Mounds View, MN  55112
Phone: (763) 783-3136
Email: easmith@usgs.gov
Browse Graphic None available
Associated Data Sets

Section 2 Data Quality
Attribute Accuracy Accuracy based on the input data sets, including the original SSURGO/STATSGO data for the State of Minnesota, NLCD data for the State of Minnesota, and the Daymet data for the State of Minnesota. Additional information can be found in Smith and Westenbroek (2015).
Logical Consistency Data are topologically correct using ArcGIS 10.x.
Completeness This layer is for the period from 1996 to 2010. No scheduled updates beyond 2010 have been scheduled at this time.
Horizontal Positional Accuracy Accuracy based on the input data sets, including the original SSURGO/STATSGO data for the State of Minnesota, NLCD data for the State of Minnesota, and the Daymet data for the State of Minnesota. Additional information can be found in Smith and Westenbroek (2015).
Vertical Positional Accuracy Not Applicable
Lineage The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, used the Soil-Water-Balance model to calculate gridded estimates of potential groundwater recharge across Minnesota for 1996-2010 at a 1-kilometer (0.621-mile) resolution. The potential groundwater recharge estimates calculated for Minnesota from the Soil-Water Balance model included gridded values (1-kilometer resolution) of annual mean estimates (that is, the means for individual years from 1996 through 2010) and mean annual estimates (that is, the mean for the 15-year period 1996-2010). The Soil-Water-Balance model uses a modified Thornthwaite-Mather soil-water-balance approach, with components of the soil-water balance calculated on a daily basis. A key advantage of this approach includes the use of commonly available geographic information system data layers that incorporate land cover, soil properties, and daily meteorological data to produce temporally and spatially variable gridded estimates of potential recharge. The Soil-Water-Balance model was calibrated by using a combination of parameter estimation techniques, making manual adjustments of model parameters, and using parameter values from previously published Soil-Water-Balance models. Each calibration simulation compared the potential recharge estimate from the model against base-flow estimates derived from three separate hydrograph separation techniques. A total of 35 Minnesota watersheds were selected for the model calibration.

Meteorological data necessary for the model included daily precipitation, minimum daily temperature, and maximum daily temperature. All of the meteorological data were provided by the Daymet dataset (Thornton and others, 2012), which included daily continuous surfaces of key climatological data. Land-cover data were provided by the 2001 and 2006 National Land Cover Database: the 2001 classification was used from 1994 through 2003, and the 2006 classification was used from 2004 through 2010. Soil data used in the model included hydrologic soils group and the available soil-water capacity. These soil data were obtained from the Natural Resources Conservation Service Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database and the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) database.

The statewide mean annual potential recharge rate from 1996-2010 was 4.9 inches per year. Potential recharge estimates increased from west to east across Minnesota. The mean annual potential recharge estimates across Minnesota at a 1-km resolution for the overall simulation period (1996-2010) ranged from less than 0.1 to 17.8 inches per year. Some of the lowest potential recharge rates for the simulation period were in the Red River of the North Basin of northwestern Minnesota, and generally were between 1.0 and 1.5 inches per year. The highest potential recharge rates were in northeastern Minnesota and the Anoka Sand Plain in central Minnesota. Eighty-eight percent of the potential recharge rates (by grid cell) were between 2 and 8 inches per year from 1996-2010. Only about 3 percent of all the potential recharge estimates (by grid cell) were less than 2 inches per year, and 9 percent of estimates were greater than 8 inches per year.

The methodology is documented in: Smith, E.A., and Westenbroek, S.M., 2015, Potential groundwater recharge for the state of Minnesota using the Soil-Water-Balance model, 1996-2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2015-5038, 85 p.,dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20155038

The Daymet data can be found at: Thornton, P.E., Thornton, M.M., Mayer, B.W., Wilhelmi, N., Wei, Y., and Cook, R.B., 2012, Daymet-Daily surface weather on a 1-km grid for North America, 1980 - 2012: accessed September 30, 2014, at daac.ornl.gov/cgi-bin/dsviewer.pl?ds_id=1219

Land-cover data (National Land Cover Database-NLCD) is available from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium at: www.mrlc.gov/
Soil data were obtained from the Natural Resources Conservation Service Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database and the State Soil Geographic (STATSGO) database, available for download at: websoilsurvey.sc.egov.usda.gov/App/WebSoilSurvey.aspx

Contact person information:
Erik Smith, Hydrologist
U.S. Geological Survey
2280 Woodale Drive
Mounds View, MN 55112
Phone: (763) 783-3136
FAX: (763) 783-3103
Email: easmith@usgs.gov

Section 3 Spatial Data Organization (not used in this metadata)

Section 4 Coordinate System
Horizontal Coordinate Scheme Universal Transverse Mercator
UTM Zone Number 15
Horizontal Datum NAD83
Horizontal Units meters
Cell Width 1000
Cell Height 1000

Section 5 Attributes
Overview Mean annual potential recharge rate, in inches per year.

Detailed Citation Smith, E.A., and Westenbroek, S.M., 2015, Potential groundwater recharge for the state of Minnesota using the Soil-Water-Balance model, 1996-2010: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2015-5038, 85 p.,dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20155038
Table Detail:

Section 6 Distribution
Publisher U.S. Geological Survey
Publication Date 03/26/2015
Contact Person Information David Fawcett, Spatial Database Administrator
MN.IT Services - MPCA
520 Lafayette Rd N
Saint Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-757-2350
Email: david.fawcett@state.mn.us
Distributor's Data Set Identifier geos_gw_recharge_1996_2010_mean
Distribution Liability NOTICE: The Geographic Information System (GIS) Data to which this notice is attached are made available pursuant to the Minnesota Government Data Practices Act (Minnesota Statutes Chapter 13). THE GIS DATA ARE PROVIDED TO YOU AS IS AND WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY AS TO THEIR PERFORMANCE, MERCHANTABILITY, OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. The GIS Data were developed by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agnecy for its own internal business purposes. The Minnesota Pollution Control Agency does not represent or warrant that the GIS Data or the data documentation are error-free, complete, current, or accurate. You are responsible for any consequences resulting from your use of the GIS Data or your reliance on the GIS Data. You should consult the data documentation for this particular GIS Data to determine the limitations of the GIS Data and the precision with which the GIS Data may depict distance, direction, location, or other geographic features. If you transmit or provide the GIS Data (or any portion of it) to another user, the GIS Data must include a copy of this disclaimer.
Ordering Instructions Please visit the download page for this dataset on the Minnesota Geospatial Commons website using the web link below (Online Linkage).
Online Linkage None available

Section 7 Metadata Reference
Metadata Date 04/09/2015
Contact Person Information David Fawcett, Spatial Database Administrator
MN.IT Services - MPCA
520 Lafayette Rd N
Saint Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-757-2350
Email: david.fawcett@state.mn.us
Metadata Standard Name Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines
Metadata Standard Version 1.2
Metadata Standard Online Linkage http://www.mngeo.state.mn.us/committee/standards/mgmg/metadata.htm


This page last updated: 04/09/2015
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